Palermo was founded as a Punic base. In 480 a.C. ,it received a carthage fleet and in254 a.C.,during the first Punic was conquered by the Romans whio made it a colony and named it Pànormus. It maintained its role as a central port and commercial site without undergoing any further urban expansion. Palermo underwent a fall during the Barbaric invasions and after thee centuries of Byzantine rule,it was conquered by the Arabs in 831 and fortified; from 948 it was the capital of the Sicily: in Balarm, as it was called, began a long period of economic administrative, and constructive activity.
The city was splendidly described by the writers of the time.
From 1072,it passed under the rule of the Normans (in 1130 Ruggero II was crowned King of Sicily) who allowed the cohabitation
of AQrabs ,Greek-Byzantines, and italics (who had important effect
on the architecture of the time).
Commerce developed as did a prestigious craft man industry. Passed under Swedish rule,during the reign of Federico II the city became one of the main cultural centres in Europe;the removal of the Arab community was yet the origin of decline, accentuated by the bad Angerin government that followed against which the revolt of Vespro (1282) was aroused. This revolt favoured the conquering of powered by the Aragonese.
Under longer the capital) was accentuated; from 1713 the city and island passed under Savoia’s control, then under Austrian rule, and finally from 1734 under the command of Borbone of Naples, under whom it remained until Garibaldi’s enterprise in 1860.